Therefore, even though the properties of organic cotton fibre are not as good as regular cotton fibre worldwide production of organic cotton is growing rapidly. Service Marks / Trademarks of Cotton Incorporated. The biggest producers of cotton are China, India and the United States, although the United States are the biggest exporter of cotton and China produces the cotton mostly for domestic use. A chemical defoliant is usually applied before mechanical picking to cause the plants to shed their leaves, thus encouraging more uniform ripening of the bolls. Cotton fabrics can be extremely durable and resistant to abrasion. The origins of cotton production and use go back to ancient times. The United States is a key producer and exporter of cotton. During this period the seeds and their attached hairs develop within the boll, which increases considerably in size. When the seeds are nearly ripe the pod burst open and the cotton hairs project, forming a white fluffy mass called a boll. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Navigate parenthood with the help of the Raising Curious Learners podcast. Because young seedlings are especially sensitive to attack by a complex of disease organisms, treatment of seeds before planting is common. Scientists believe that cotton was first cultivated in the Indus delta. Maharashtra, Gujarat, and Punjab are the principal cotton-growing states. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? In 1793, Eli Whitney revolutionized the production of cotton when he invented the cotton gin, a Cotton farming decision aids provide bottom line answers to "what if" scenarios based on information entered. Cotton fibres may be classified roughly into three large groups, based on staple length (average length of the fibres making up a sample or bale of cotton) and appearance. Cotton is a dirty industry Cotton is the … The various species of cotton grown as agricultural crops are native to most subtropical parts of the world and were domesticated independently multiple times. The second group contains the standard medium-staple cotton, such as American Upland, with staple length from about 1.3 to 3.3 cm (0.5 to 1.3 inches). Handpicking, carried out over a period of several days, allows selection of the mature and opened bolls, so that a higher yield is possible. Soil fumigation moderately succeeded in combatting such fungus diseases as fusarium wilt, verticillium wilt, and Texas root rot, which are restricted to certain conditions of soil, rainfall, and general climate. According to the US Department of Labour, cotton is one of the goods most commonly produced using forced labour. origins of agriculture: Mechanized equipment for cotton. Within 80–100 days after planting, the plant develops white blossoms, which change to a reddish colour. The first evidence of cotton use was found in India and Pakistan, and dates from about 6,000 B.C. The demand for the commodity is usually driven by the demand for cotton lint by textile producers. This statistic shows the total amount of cotton produced worldwide from 1990 to 2020. There are three groups of commercial cotton; American Upland cotton, American Pima or Extra Long Staple (ELS) cotton, and shorter length cottons. Cotton is an arable crop used mainly for fibre. The alternative: Organic cotton. A card (carding) machine brushes the loose fibres into rows that are joined as a soft sheet, or web, and forms them into loose untwisted rope known as card sliver. For the production of cotton blends, air-jet spinning may be used; in this high-speed method, air currents wrap loose fibres around a straight sliver core. Warp yarns often are treated chemically to prevent breaking during weaving. Additionally, genetically modified “Bt cotton” was developed to produce bacterial proteins that are toxic to herbivorous insects, ostensibly reducing the amount of pesticides needed (). For higher-quality yarn, card sliver is put through a combing machine, which straightens the staple further and removes unwanted short lengths, or noils. Most of the seeds (cottonseed) are separated from the fibres by a mechanical process called ginning. Handpicking also produces considerably cleaner cotton; mechanical harvesters pick the bolls by suction, accumulating loose material, dust, and dirt, and cannot distinguish between good and discoloured cotton. Cotton Incorporated is committed to providing cotton production information and cotton production resources to help the cotton industry meet and exceed these challenges. The fibres can be made into a wide variety of fabrics ranging from lightweight voiles and laces to heavy sailcloths and thick-piled velveteens, suitable for a great variety of wearing apparel, home furnishings, and industrial uses. The pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella), originally reported in India in 1842, has spread throughout the cotton-producing countries, causing average annual crop losses of up to 25 percent in, for example, India, Egypt, China, and Brazil. Equipment includes tractor, two-row stalk-cutter, disk (to... Close-up of a carding machine at a textile mill. https://www.britannica.com/topic/cotton-fibre-and-plant, Jewish Women's Archive - Biography of Anne Frank, Web Gallery of Art - Biography of Antonio Canova, The New Georgia Encyclopedia - Business and Economy - Cotton, JewishEncyclopedia.com - Biography of Georg Brandes, cotton - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), cotton - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Thinner strands are produced by the roving (slubbing) process, in which the sliver is converted to roving by being pulled and slightly twisted. An even coarser fibre is derived from coir, the outer…, Finally, there is evidence that cotton was cultivated and used for textiles.…. Production, particularly in the tropical regions of the world, looks set to suffer under predicted rising temperatures, decreased soil moisture and more extreme weather events and flooding. Cotton, seed-hair fibre of several species of plants of the genus Gossypium, belonging to the hibiscus, or mallow, family (Malvaceae). Healthy rural economies are based on stable farm income, and cotton yields and prices are often among the healthiest of all field crops, vegetable or fruit. The boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis), the most serious cotton pest in the United States in the early 1900s, was finally controlled by appropriate cultivation methods and by the application of such insecticides as chlorinated hydrocarbons and organophosphates. Cotton Incorporated showcases interviews with cotton growers to share their experiences and knowledge. Every bale of cotton in the United States is classed by USDA classing offices and reports are issued weekly during the classing season. There, machines feed the cotton into a cotton gin, which pulls the cotton fibers apart to remove unwanted debris such as dirt, twigs, burs, leaves and other plant material. COTTON Market situation The world cotton market experienced dramatic developments in the first half of the 2015 marketing year (see glossary for a definition of marketing year) caused by an acute drop in production – about 9% – in major producing countries. To be used for thread or fabric, raw seed cotton must cleaned and free of debris. Other module feeders are self-propelled, moving down a track alongside the modules. The fibres are composed of about 87 to 90 percent cellulose (a carbohydrate plant substance), 5 to 8 percent water, and 4 to 6 percent natural impurities. Good yields require over 95% weed control. In 2018/19, cotton production worldwide amounted to some 118.65 million 480-pound bales. Traduzioni in contesto per "of cotton production" in inglese-italiano da Reverso Context: Commissioner, the current reform of cotton production began in 2001. Cotton, one of the world’s leading agricultural crops, is plentiful and economically produced, making cotton products relatively inexpensive. The intermediary categroy, cotton fibers between 18mm-28mm, constitute the grand mass of the world production of around 60%. Two-thirds of the weight of the seed cotton (i.e., the seed with the adhering seed hair) consists of the seeds. Each year, India produces an average of 5,770 thousand metric tonnes of cotton making it the world’s highest producer. Module feeders break the modules apart and feedthe cotton into the gin. Whereas it grows up to 6 metres (20 feet) high in the tropics, it characteristically ranges from 1 to 2 metres (3 to 6.5 feet) in height under cultivation. Although cotton can be grown between latitudes 30° N and 30° S, yield and fibre quality are considerably influenced by climatic conditions, and best qualities are obtained with high moisture levels resulting from rainfall or irrigation during the growing season and a dry, warm season during the picking period. › Currently it is grown over 6 per cent of the net sown area. Table 24.14 shows the trends in the production of cotton in India. The textile industry used to be the country’s largest consumer of cotton … Its production provides income for more than 250 million people worldwide and employs almost 7% … Losses have been estimated as high as 50 percent in some African countries and in Brazil. Greece is the main cotton grower, with 80% of European cotton area, followed by Spain (mainly the region of Andalucía) with a share of 20%. Cotton production contributes to between 0.3% and 1% of total global GHG emissions. Herbicide resistance education and training are critical for advancing the adoption of diverse weed management programs to delay and mitigate the evolution of herbicide-resistant weeds. It produces 3,999 thousand metric tonnes a year. Equipment includes tractor, two-row stalk-cutter, disk (to shred the stalks), bedder (to shape the soil into ridges or seedbeds), planter, cultivator, sprayer, and harvester. Long staple cotton originates usually from the USA, whereas the shorter come from Asian regions. Cotton production is a very involved process, from planting cotton seeds to picking the cotton crop to the processing it in a cotton gin. A variety of cotton production, crop management, yield variety, and fiber quality data resources. It is comfortable to wear because it absorbs and releases moisture quickly. Insecticides are sprayed to protect the plants at this stage. Jute, mainly from West Bengal, Assam, and Bihar, is the second leading natural fibre. In addition to parasitic nematodes, cotton is subject to endemic bacterial, fungal, and viral diseases and at least two recently introduced fungal diseases. Ginned cotton is shipped in bales to a textile mill for yarn manufacturing. Nonwoven cotton, made by fusing or bonding the fibres together, is useful for making disposable products to be used as towels, polishing cloths, tea bags, tablecloths, bandages, and disposable uniforms and sheets for hospital and other medical uses. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Linters, fibres considerably shorter than the seed hair and more closely connected to the seed, come from a second growth beginning about 10 days after the first seed hairs begin to develop. Blends (composites) are made during yarn processing by joining drawn cotton with other staple fibres, such as polyester or casein . This statistic shows the world's leading cotton producing countries in crop year 2019/2020. Cotton is the most widespread profitable non-food crop in the world. The majority of the cotton comes from India, the United States and China – the world’s top three cotton producers. World cotton production is projected to increase by 1.5 percent annually in the current decade to reach 23.1 million tonnes by 2010. Table 24.14 Production, Area and Yield of Cotton in India: Much of it is exported in processed form, largely as burlap. Following planting, cotton requires 8 weeks of weed-free growth for maximum yields. Seeds, burrs, dirt, stems and leaf material are removed from the cotton during ginning. Production from developing countries is expected to reach 16.2 million tonnes by 2010, about 70 percent of world production. History Cotton is being employed by mankind for over 7000 years. The character is the attribute determined with more difficulty. Glyphosate-resistant cotton, which can tolerate the herbicide glyphosate, was also developed through genetic engineering. For the production of cotton blends, air-jet spinning may be used; in this high-speed method, air currents wrap loose fibres around a straight sliver core. Vice President, Research, Textile Research Institute, Princeton, New Jersey. America’s Cotton Producers and Importers. Combine harvesting ripe cotton in Alabama. Information about spindle-type cotton harvesters, stripper harvesting and seed cotton handling storage. Limited control of damage by insect pests can be achieved by proper timing of planting and other cultural practices or by selective breeding of varieties having some resistance to insect damage. Then the gin's saws and teeth separate the cotton fiber from the seeds, sending them in different directions. Almost all of the cotton fiber growth and production occurs in southern and western states, dominated by Texas, California, Arizona, Mississippi, Arkansas, and Louisiana. Finally, the roving is transferred to a spinning frame, where it is drawn further, twisted on a ring spinner, and wound on a bobbin as yarn. In the drawing (drafting) stage, a series of variable-speed rollers attenuates and reduces the sliver to firm uniform strands of usable size. A tour around a factory to find out about the manufacture of cotton fabric and the various tests it must pass before leaving the factory. The first group includes the fine, lustrous fibres with staple length ranging from about 2.5 to 6.5 cm (about 1 to 2.5 inches) and includes types of the highest quality—such as Sea Island, Egyptian, and pima cottons. The bollworm (Heliothis zea, also known as the corn earworm) feeds on cotton and many other wild and cultivated plants. To avoid damage to the cotton by wind or rain, it is picked as soon as the bolls open, but since the bolls do not all reach maturity simultaneously, an optimum time is chosen for harvesting by mechanical means. Some varieties have been bred that are resistant to a bacterial disease called angular leaf spot. A traditional and still common processing method is ring spinning, by which the mass of cotton may be subjected to opening and cleaning, picking, carding, combing, drawing, roving, and spinning. Faster production methods include rotor spinning (a type of open-end spinning), in which fibres are detached from the card sliver and twisted, within a rotor, as they are joined to the end of the yarn. Controls and quarantines of affected areas have helped limit the spread of the insect, and eradication has been possible in a few relatively small areas with sufficiently strict controls. American Upland cotton crop data for the Far West, Southwest, Midsouth and Southeast cotton growing areas. 27 million tons of cotton is produced globally in a year By 2028, cotton production is projected to reach 29 million tons. There are six stages in the process of organic cotton garment manufacture. 08-05-2017. Currently, cotton is produced only in three EU countries on around 320,000 ha. The water footprint is only 10% the footprint of “conventionally” grown cotton and no pesticides or other synthetic chemicals are used in the production. New varieties, crop nutrition, soil fertility, tillage, planting, seedling development and in-season management in cotton agronomy. Updates? Some module feeders have giant conveyors moving the modules into stationary heads. Production: India has the largest area under cotton cultivation in the world though she is the world’s third largest producer of cotton after China and the USA. Production of cotton is limited to a few big producers, with China, Brazil, India, Pakistan, Uzbekistan and the USA accounting for over 80% of the total production. The breeding of resistant varieties, however, has been more effective. Agricultural and Environmental Research staff directory. A picker (picking machine) then wraps the fibres into a lap. When ripe, the boll bursts into a white, fluffy ball containing three to five cells, each having 7 to 10 seeds embedded in a mass of seed fibres. During this period, the plant is subject to attack by many insects (e.g. …the commercial industrial crops is cotton. Cotton production is an important economic factor in the United States as the country leads, worldwide, in cotton exportation. Each cottonseed may produce as many as 20,000 fibres. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Cotton is attacked by several hundred species of insects, including such harmful species as the boll weevil, pink bollworm, cotton leafworm, cotton fleahopper, cotton aphid, rapid plant bug, conchuela, southern green stinkbug, spider mites (red spiders), grasshoppers, thrips, and tarnished plant bugs. Organizations in which Cotton Incorporated participates to enforce the standardization of cotton as a natural resource. A fieldworker picking cotton in Leme, São Paulo state, Brazil. Bulgaria produces cotton on less than 1,000 ha. Cotton, however, emerged as the antebellum South’s major commercial crop, eclipsing tobacco, rice, and sugar in economic importance. The fertilized blossoms fall off after a few days and are replaced by small green triangular pods, called bolls, that mature after a period of 55–80 days. The cottonseed research and marketing program strives to maximize cotton-grower profit from the cottonseed byproduct. Omissions? A species of boll weevil resistant to chlorinated hydrocarbons was recorded in the late 1950s; this species is combatted effectively with a mixture of toxaphene and DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane), which has been outlawed in the United States and some other countries, however. By 1860, the region was producing two-thirds of the world’s cotton. Seminar, conference and workshop presentations and future events. View and listen to current cotton market information, world events, and analysis from expert sources. Organic, responsibly grown cotton is better for the planet in many ways. Cotton production in Nigeria has been linked to the productivity of the Nigerian textile industry. COVID-19 & Consumer Concerns in Mexico – Second Wave, COVID-19 & Consumer Concerns in China – Second Wave, Fueling Consumption in Mexico’s Activewear Market, China’s Baby Care & Feminine Hygiene Market, Prospects for Tomorrow’s Underwear Market, 2014 Farm Bill – Farm Program and Insurance Decision Aid, Cotton Harvest Cost Comparison Program/Decision Aid, Cotton Precision Agriculture Investment Decision Aid (CPAIDA), Precision Agriculture Yield Variability Analyzer, Alternative and Low-Cost Sources of Lime and Fertilizer, Year-Round Expert Advice to Cotton Growers, No-Till, Double-Cropping System Yields Costs Savings, Manage Heat with Innovation for Cotton Production, Satellite Imagery Technology to Manage Variable Soil, Maximizing Harvester Capacity & Productivity, What Is at Risk When Seed Cotton Is Stored, Proper Cutting of Plastic Wrap on Round Modules, Initiating and Terminating Irrigation for the Season, Water-Sensitivity of Cotton Growth Stages, Management Considerations for Irrigated Cotton, Rolling High Rye for Conservation of Tillage Cotton Success, 2015 Conservation Tillage Conference Proceedings, 2014 Conservation Tillage Conference Proceedings, 2013 Conservation Tillage Conference Proceedings, 2012 Conservation Tillage Conference Proceedings, 2011 Conservation Tillage Conference Proceedings, 2010 Conservation Tillage Conference Proceedings, 2009 Conservation Tillage Conference Proceedings, 2008 Conservation Tillage Conference Proceedings, 2007 Conservation Tillage Conference Proceedings, Whole Cottonseed a Super Feed for Dairy Cows, Cotton Precision Crop Technology Providers, Other Precision Agriculture for Cotton Websites, Ultra Narrow Row Cotton Harvest to Textiles, Management of White Fly Resistance to Key Insecticides in Arizona, Technical Advisory Committee of the Whitefly Q Biotype Task Force, Herbicide-resistant Weeds Training Lessons, Current Status of Herbicide Resistance in Weeds, Scouting After a Herbicide Application and Confirming Herbicide Resistance, Principles of Managing Herbicide Resistance, Take Action against Herbicide-Resistant Weeds, 2012 Breeding Cotton for Resistance to Fusarium and Nematodes Meeting Presentations, 2007 Genetics of Root Knot Nematode Resistance in Cotton Meeting Presentations, 2005 Breeding Cotton for Resistance to Nematodes, Breeding Cotton Nematode Resistance Meeting Presentations, Cotton Leafroll Dwarf Virus Research Review, Identification and Management of Fusarium Wilt Race 4, Exotic Polerovirus Infecting Cotton in the Southeast US, Research Coordination Meeting on Target Spot Presentations, Review of the Bacterial Blight Research Program, Identification and Management of Bacterial Blight of Cotton, Diagnosis and Management of Foliar Diseases in the United States, Site-Specific Management of Cotton Root Rot Using Airborne and Satellite Imagery and Variable Rate Technology, Cotton Root Rot(Phymatotrichopsis Root Rot) and it’s Management, Managing Glyphosate-Resistant Palmer Amaranth Research Meeting, Managing Glyphosate-Resistant Palmer Amaranth Research Presentations, Segregation and what it means in Palmer amaranth, 2014 Crop Management Seminar Presentations, 2012 Crop Management Seminar Presentations, 2006 Crop Management Seminar Presentations, 2010 Crop Management Seminar Presentations, 2008 Crop Management Seminar Presentations, International Cotton Genome Initiative (ICGI) Research Conference Presentations, California State Support Committee Bylaws, Mississippi State Support Committee Bylaws, North Carolina State Support Committee Bylaws, South Carolina State Support Committee Bylaws, Virginia State Cotton Support Committee Bylaws, Maintaining Official Standards for Classification, Quality and Reliability of Classification Data, Final Cotton Crop Quality Summary Reports, The Global Baby Care Market Present and Future Growth, The Seal of Cotton Trademark Licensing Program, Cotton Science & Sustainability Lesson Plans.
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