# organizational structure roles and responsibilities

Organisational Structures & Roles Presented By : Vijayalaxmi Panchal(33) Mandar Pandeshwar(34) Jayesh Parab(35) Vishal Pasi(36) The activities are placed according to their importance in the structure and proper guidelines are given for resource allocation. \end{aligned} $$, $$R: {\mathcal{E}} \times \mathbb{W} \longrightarrow \mathbb{W}$$, $$R(T,w_{1}) = \{ w_{2} \, | \, \exists t \in T \, \, s.t. The organization structure gives higher place to activities which are more important to the achievement of organizational objectives. Features of a Good Organization Structure. , R Various organizational models are developed to bring efficiency in operations. However, this last version is not a validity since we cannot rule out the possibility of violation constants holding also in those worlds reached via correct executions of the plan. In a sense, we abstracted from the rules and we looked more concretely at their results, i.e., the organizational structures that the rules can impose on a group of agents. Notice that task division consists of two steps. J Artif Soc Social Simul 7, Decker K, Lesser V (1995) Designing a family of coordination algorithms. t^\prime \circ t^{\prime\prime} = t \}$$, $$t = \left\langle st_{1}, \ldots , st_{n} \right\rangle$$,$$ \tilde{t} = \bigcup_{1 \leq n \leq dur(t)} \left\langle st_{1}, \ldots , \tilde{st_{n}} \right\rangle $$, $$[\![\;]\!] Through the task allocation process, each atomic component of the complex action, which is intended to realize a specific objective of the organization, is allocated to one agent. will have sooner or later to perform α”. . The alphabet of \({\mathcal{L}}^{ORG}$$ consists first of all of a set of agent identifiers Ag (groups of agents identifiers are denoted by $$X, Y, \ldots$$), and a set AR of roles identifiers. 4.1, organizational actions require, in order to be successful, specific structural constraints among the roles of the organization and specific enactment configurations. (s-trace) The set $${\mathcal{T}}$$ of s-traces is defined as follows: The length of an s-trace t is denoted by dur(t). It allows a person to think and develop new and better ways of doing work. Organizational actions are activities by means of which any collective agency can be managed. An organizational structure is simply the pattern or network of division of these roles and responsibilities. The following are the features of a good organization structure: There should be a clear line of authority from top to the bottom. and (Accountability) An agent $$a_i \in Ag$$ is accountable for a violation V by performing α iff it is blameworthy for V by performing α and it was, at the initial state of the run, task-based responsible for the execution α: It might be interesting to spend a few words about the intuitive meanings of the two expressions $${\mathfrak{TaskR}}(a_i,\alpha)$$ and $$@_{\rm start}{\mathfrak{TaskR}}(a_i,\alpha)$$. The question is then how the access and sharing of information is structured within the organization: who can (successfully) inform whom? We will often refer to s-sets by making the group of agents explicit in an index (e.g. Please check the 'Copyright Information' section for details of this license and Top Management must assign the responsibility and authority to ensure that the system conforms to the requirements of ISO 9001 and that the processes are delivering their intended outputs. [ \xi_1 ]\! (Structural conditions for There will be job satisfaction when persons are free to operate within prescribed limits. If your intended use exceeds what is permitted by the license or if Formula 27 deserves in particular some more words. ($${\mathfrak{TaskR}}$$ = & [\! ]_{R}(w_{1}): M, w_{2} \models \phi \\ M,w_1 \models & K_{a}\phi \hbox{ iff } \forall w_2, w_1 {\mathcal{K}}_a w_2: M,w_2 \models \phi \\ M, w \models & @_{start} \phi \hbox{ iff } M, w_{start} \models \phi \\ M, w_{1} \models & @_{-1} \phi \hbox{ iff } \exists w_{2} \in {\mathbb{W}}, \ w_{2} \prec w_{1}: M, w_{2} \models \phi \\ M, w_{1} \models & @_{+1} \phi \hbox{ iff } \exists w_{2} \in {\mathbb{W}}, \ w_{1} \prec w_{2}: M, w_{2} \models \phi \\ M, w_{1} \models & DO(\xi_1) \hbox{ iff } \forall w_{2} \in {\mathbb{W}}, \ w_{1} \prec w_{2} \Rightarrow w_{1} \in [\! Business roles are positions that have certain sets of responsibilities. Other results of this kind are obtainable in the framework. First, given a plan, each action component of the plan is linked to a role of the organization. At t… In fact, I can have a task even if I was not appointed to it by the initial plan, for instance because I have been addressee of a delegation action. Definition: A matrix organizational structure is the arrangement of the personnel, i.e., the matrix leader, managers and employees, across the grid, such that a hybrid hierarchy is maintained. Informally, a s-set is nothing but a set of parallel executions of events by a group of agents, and formalizes the aforementioned open interpretation view on events. Such issue is somehow analogous to the information issue since it concerns requirements each tasks presupposes in order to be accomplished. A basic type of capabilities lies in the amount of resources that agents should have at their disposal. Again, this cannot successfully happen without appropriate structural links, and Formulae 18 and 19 have a delegation variant: which is also satisfiable if no power link is put in place. Sociol Forum 12:73–101, Giddens (1984) A social theory and modern sociology. Proper plans can be chosen on the basis of the available structural links and enactment configuration. However, this is not the only case in which a given organizational bears consequences for the assessment of responsibilities within a group. A good structure not only facilitates communication but also brings efficiency in different segments. An analysis in a dynamic logic of organized collective agency, Artificial Intelligence and Law to review some papers in one week, and agent a 5. (1997). [ X: \alpha_{2} ]\!] In this section we show how our analysis provides a way for understanding the influence of organizational structure on the various notions of responsibility formalized in the previous section. The organizational members try to maximize the output of goods and services from the given inputs. For strategy to be successful, an organization will need to clearly define the roles and r… Since there are many levels, decision-making authority has to pass through more layers than flatter organizations. An agent can be causally responsible for a failure without actually being blameworthy for that. In order to achieve them, these people also share roles and responsibilities with each other. Finally, if a control relation holds between roles r and s, all monitoring acts performed by agents enacting role r on agents enacting role s do not only create knowledge in the controller about the relevant state of affairs, but they also determine an obligation for the controller in case the controlled agent did not perform the action that is monitored. Notre Dame J Formal Logic 29(1):109–136, MATH = & [\! Looking at the definition from a more technical point of view, we see again the same patterns used in Definitions 4.1 and 4.2. The structure model shows how the organization will run and progress.$$, $$reach(st,w) = \left\{ \begin{array}{ll} \{ w^\prime \ | \ w^\prime \in reach(st^\prime,w) \;\hbox{and}\; M,w^\prime \models K_b \phi \} \\ \;\hbox{if}\; M,w \models K_a @_{+1}\phi \;\hbox{and}\; M,w \models Coord(r,s) \\ \ \ \ \wedge rea(a,r) \wedge rea(b,s) \\ reach(st^\prime,w), \ \ \hbox{otherwise} \end{array} \right. i We have already introduced the notion of role enactment configuration in Definition 3.1 formalized by the relation Rea in OS structures and representable in $${\mathcal{L}}^{ORG}$$ via finite conjunctions of the form: such that $$\forall 1 \leq i \leq n, a_i \in Ag$$ and $$r_i \in AR$$. It will take more time to convey the decisions from the top to the bottom. [ \xi ]\!]} A Organizational Chart showing Roles and Responsibilities. This is the case, for instance, if it just was not informed about the task it was supposed to perform. [ X: \overline{\alpha} ]\!] You can edit this Organizational Chart using Creately diagramming tool and include in your report/presentation/website. •Section:The organizational level having responsibility for a major functional area of incident management (e.g., Operations, Planning, Logistics, Finance/Administration, and Intelligence/Investigations (if established)). (1996) our semantics consists of two parts: first event expressions are interpreted as set theoretic constructs on $${\mathbb{A}}$$ where events get a so-called open interpretation; successively event expressions are interpreted as state-transition functions determining the accessibility relation $$[\![\;]\! \(J = \left\langle J_a , J_r \right\rangle$$ where $$J_a: Ag \longrightarrow Agents$$, i.e., J First a raw plan is found, which consists only of the atomic actions necessary for carrying out the organizational goal at issue: where • stands for one of the event composition operators (so, • ∈{;,&,+}), for all $$1 \leq i \leq n\;\alpha_i \in {\mathcal{A}}$$ (we consider thus plans to be spelled out in terms of atomic actions). This section expands on the work presented in Grossi et al. The four groups listed below typically comprise a safety team; your organization’s team may vary … Groups have, instead, no single mind even though they can act as if they had one precisely by undertaking appropriate organizational activities. A person should supervise only that number of subordinates to whom he can directly keep under contact. See (Horling and Lesser (2004) for an exhaustive survey. People get an opportunity to explain their jobs. Such a row plan does not include all the organizational actions necessary for the program committee to manage the performance of the plan itself. This is the case also for MAS organizations where agents, even if “benevolent”, are anyway subjected to the possibility of failure. We do not consider our analysis, however, to exhaust all the aspects involved in the notions of delegation, control and monitor within organizations. 0 s.t. \\ [\! An organizational structure is a system that outlines how certain activities are directed in order to achieve the goals of an organization. is a function that maps role names into the corresponding roles. Our models should thus be rich enough to give a precise semantics to all these ingredients. $$M, w \models [a_1: \alpha_1 \bullet \cdots \bullet a_n: \alpha_n] \tau$$. Sometimes managers assign work to subordinates without giving them proper authority, it shows lack of decision-making on their part. And in what sense precisely is it responsible?$$, $$reach(st,w) = \left\{ \begin{array}{ll} \{ w^\prime \ | \ w^\prime \in reach(st^\prime,w) \\ \;\hbox{and}\; M,w^\prime \models K_a DONE(b: \alpha) \} \\ \;\hbox{if}\; M,w \models DO(b: \alpha) \wedge K_a O(b: \alpha) \\ \;\hbox{and}\; M,w \models Control(r,s) \wedge rea(a,r) \wedge rea(b,s) \\ \{ w^\prime \ | \ w^\prime \in reach(st^\prime,w) \\ \;\hbox{and}\; M,w^\prime \models K_a DONE(b: \overline{\alpha}) \wedge K_a O(a: \alpha) \} \\ \;\hbox{if}\; M,w \models DO(b: \overline{\alpha}) \wedge K_a O(b: \alpha) \\ \;\hbox{and}\; M,w \models Control(r,s) \wedge rea(a,r) \wedge rea(b,s) \\ reach(st^\prime,w), \ \ \hbox{otherwise} \end{array} \right. For example, a company could have a group working in information technology, another in marketing and another in finance.Each department has a manager or director who answers to an executive a level up in the hierarchy who may … Delegation introduces a dynamic within this attribution of tasks transferring tasks from agents to agents when the recipient of the transfer plays a somehow subordinated role within the organization. Since agents’ tasks can be accomplished or not, the monitoring activity is an indispensable activity in which any organization has to engage. :α (Semantic constraints for In: Brown MA, Carmo J (eds) Deontic logic, agency and normative systems. In order to provide the desired analysis we consider various ingredients that make a collective agency an organized collective agency. $${\mathcal{P}}^{+}(Agents)$$ is the non-empty powerset of the finite set of actors Agents, that means the possible groups of actors. Cambridge University Press, Morgenstern O (1951) ASTIA Document Number ATI 210734 (unpublished manuscript), Ross KA, Wright CRB (1992) Graph theory. In the same section a thorough analysis of the notion of plan as intended in this work is exposed. $$a: monitor(b,\alpha)$$) For any step st and s-set S such that $$a: monitor(b,\alpha) \in S$$ and $$S \in st$$ (with $$a,b \in Ag$$ and $$\alpha \in Act$$) and any $$w \in W$$: where st′ is the step obtained from st removing all occurrences of $$a: monitor(b,\alpha)$$ from each of its s-sets. This semantics constraint models therefore the idea that a control link between two roles on the one hand enables the monitoring agents with the necessary tools and capabilities for being always able to ascertain whether the action to be checked was actually performed or not, and on the other it attributes to the monitoring agent tasks of a recovery kind. i The organization structure is also called the organization chart/organogram (Ottih, 2008). ]_{R}\) on $${\mathbb{W}}$$. We say that an agent is accountable for a violation if it caused the violation by performing an action α and if it was appointed to $$\overline{\alpha}$$ according to the plan that had to be executed at the beginning of the run. The implementation of structure specifies laws and regulations that will help the organization maintain … (Semantic constraints for Content Filtrations 6. With respect to the control issue the relevant structural question is: who can (successfully) monitor whom? Disclaimer 9. (s-set) The set $${\mathcal{S}}$$ of s-sets is defined as follows $${\mathcal{S}} = {\mathcal{P}}^{+}(Agents) \times \{ \hbox{skip} \} \cup {\mathcal{P}}^{+}(Agents) \times {\mathcal{P}}^{+}({\mathbb{A}})$$. $$w_{3} {\mathcal{K}}_{i} w_{1}$$ or $$w_{3} {\mathcal{K}}_{i} w_{2}$$ then $$w_{3} {\mathcal{K}}_{i} w_{2}$$ and $$w_{3} {\mathcal{K}}_{i} w_{1}$$. In fact, many methodologies for MAS, like for instance GAIA (Wooldridge et al. Professionals working on this sector are responsible for using their understanding of the company goals and behavioral science to maximize efficiency in the workplace. i The point is that once a task is delegated and a correspondent obligation arises for a specific agent, a certain amount of information might be required for that agent to include that task in its own goal base and to pursue it. □. Image Guidelines 5. Control : Evt \longrightarrow {\mathcal{E}}\),$$ \begin{aligned} \;[\![X:\underline{a}]\!] Springer, Berlin, pp 129–145, Grossi D, Dignum F, Dastani M, Royakkers L (2005) Foundations of organizational structure in multi-agent systems. The co-ordination among activities can only be achieved through proper grouping. Because of this, control can be seen as “an organization within an organization” (Morgenstern 1951). The delegation of authority should be step by step and according to the nature of work assigned. Analogously, if a coordination relation holds between roles r and s, all information acts performed by agents enacting role r to agents enacting role s are successful in the sense that they create knowledge in these agents. These considerations are captured in the following definition. [ \xi_{1} ]\! In particular, we will consider the way the objectives of the group of agents are translated into concrete plans via task division and task allocation and the type of organizational structure in force within the group. \\ [\! Delegation is an administrative process of getting things done by others by giving them responsibility. There is however another face of the coin. Structure of HR departments depend on the size of your organization, your industry and the speed of change within your industry, and whether or not the responsibilities of HR are sourced … It is designed to serve specific motives. Finally, the monitoring activity, concerning the recovery functionalities of the organization, is related with the control dimension. If the preconditions in the second clause hold true, then the set of transitions leads to worlds all satisfying $$\models K_a DONE(b: \overline{\alpha}) \wedge K_b O_b \alpha$$. We assume dur(t) to be finite. Delegation of authority must be commensurate with the responsibility assigned. Organizational Development field is required to implement and oversee methodologies to strengthen employee abilities and knowledge, increase efficiency, and improve leadership to maintain the overall health of an organization.