big data: survey, technologies, opportunities and challenges

Avro serializes data, conducts remote procedure calls, and passes data from one program or language to another. It also examines Big Data in the current environment of enterprises and technologies. [73] have also proposed numerous extraction strategies to address rich Internet applications. With Hadoop, enterprises can harness data that was previously difficult to manage and analyze. A. Espinosa, and W. Money, “Big data: issues and challenges moving forward,” in, R. Cumbley and P. Church, “Is “Big Data” creepy?”, M. Hilbert and P. López, “The world's technological capacity to store, communicate, and compute information,”. Attempts have been generated by open-source modules to simplify this framework, but these modules also use registered languages. (iv) Statistical Analysis. Organizations often face teething troubles with respect to creating, managing, and manipulating the rapid influx of information in large datasets. To leverage Big Data from microblogging, Lee and Chien [80] introduced an advanced data-driven application. The MapReduce framework is complicated, particularly when complex transformational logic must be leveraged. The Generation of Multiple Copies of Big Data. Recent controversies regarding leaked documents reveal the scope of large data collected and analyzed over a wide range by the National Security Agency (NSA), as well as other national security agencies. Data analysis has two main objectives: to understand the relationships among features and to develop effective methods of data mining that can accurately predict future observations [75]. Eighty-eight percent of users analyze data in detail, and 82% can retain more data (Sys.con Media, 2011). Table 3 presents the specific usage of Hadoop by companies and their purposes. The following two subsections detail the volume of Big Data in relation to the rapid growth of data and the development rate of hard disk drives (HDDs). Unstructured data are hard to process because they do not follow a certain format. These constraints must result in consistent and accurate data. With this technique, previously hidden insights have been unearthed from large amounts of data to benefit the business community [2]. Nonetheless, Big Data is still in its infancy stage, and the domain has not been reviewed in general. In late 2011, 1.8 ZB of data were created as of that year, according to IDC [21]. Hadoop deconstructs, clusters, and then analyzes unstructured and semistructured data using MapReduce. Aside from these two types of nodes, HDFS can also have secondary name-node. To store the increased amount of data, HDDs must have large storage capacities. Goda et al. To store data cooperatively, multiple servers require a distributed storage system. HCatalog manages HDFS. To date, all of the data used by organizations are stagnant. Systems of data replication have also displayed some security weaknesses with respect to the generation of multiple copies, data governance, and policy. Big data: a survey. Each subprocess faces a different challenge with respect to data-driven applications. With respect to large data in cloud platforms, a major concern in data security is the assessment of data integrity in untrusted servers [101]. Five common issues are volume, variety, velocity, value, and complexity according to [4, 12]. Copyright © 2014 Nawsher Khan et al. Prior to data analysis, data must be well constructed. Ten of the most dominant data mining techniques were identified during the IEEE International Conference on Data Mining [83], including SVM, C4.5, Apriori, k-means, Cart, EM, and Naive Bayes. With Hadoop, 94% of users can analyze large amounts of data. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. The first node is a name-node that acts as a master node. NIH Morgan Stanley, “Global technology data book,” 2006. In the following paragraphs, we explain five common methods of data collection, along with their technologies and techniques. This stage of the data life cycle describes the security of data, governance bodies, organizations, and agendas. For example, “Clark and Wilson” addressed the amendment of erroneous data through well-formed transactions and the separation of powers. Integrity checking is also difficult because of the lack of support given remote data access and the lack of information regarding internal storage. As information is transferred and shared at li… Q. Xu and G. Liu, “Configuring Clark-Wilson integrity model to enforce flexible protection,” in, M. Zhang, “Strict integrity policy of Biba model with dynamic characteristics and its correctness,” in, B. Priyadharshini and P. Parvathi, “Data integrity in cloud storage,” in, Z. Xiao and Y. Xiao, “Security and privacy in cloud computing,”, M. Jensen, J. Schwenk, N. Gruschka, and L. L. Iacono, “On technical security issues in cloud computing,” in, L. Xu, D. Sun, and D. Liu, “Study on methods for data confidentiality and data integrity in relational database,” in. However, the rotational speed of the disks has improved only slightly over the last decade. It also clarifies the roles in data stewardship. BibTeX @MISC{Khan_reviewarticle, author = {Nawsher Khan and Ibrar Yaqoob and Ibrahim Abaker Targio Hashem and Zakira Inayat and Waleed Kamaleldin Mahmoud Ali and Muhammad Alam and Muhammad Shiraz and Abdullah Gani}, title = {Review Article Big Data: Survey, Technologies, Opportunities, and Challenges}, year = {}} Kaisler S, Armour F, Espinosa JA, Money W. Big data: issues and challenges moving forward. (iii) Correlation Analysis. The relationship between big data analytics and IoT is explained. J. Manyika, C. Michael, B. These policies define the data that are stored, analyzed, and accessed. The Mahout library belongs to the subset that can be executed in a distributed mode and can be executed by MapReduce. Hadoop is used by approximately 63% of organizations to manage huge number of unstructured logs and events (Sys.con Media, 2011). Chukwa collects and processes data from distributed systems and stores them in Hadoop. Review Article Big Data: Survey, Technologies, Opportunities, and Challenges NawsherKhan, 1,2 IbrarYaqoob, 1 IbrahimAbakerTargioHashem, 1 ZakiraInayat, 1,3 WaleedKamaleldinMahmoudAli, 1 MuhammadAlam, 4,5 MuhammadShiraz, 1 andAbdullahGani 1 Mobile Cloud Computing Research Lab, Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, University of Malaya, In data mining, hidden but potentially valuable information is extracted from large, incomplete, fuzzy, and noisy data. Meanwhile, semistructured data (e.g., XML) do not necessarily follow a predefined length or type. However, companies must develop special tools and technologies that can store, access, and analyze large amounts of data in near-real time because Big Data differs from the traditional data and cannot be stored in a single machine. The many-sided concept of integrity is very difficult to address adequately because different approaches consider various definitions. Djedouboum AC, Abba Ari AA, Gueroui AM, Mohamadou A, Aliouat Z. (ii) Distributed Storage System. Hence, the sizes of Hadoop clusters are often significantly larger than needed for a similar database. These complex data can be difficult to process [88]. Confidentiality refers to distorted data from theft. In terms of service quality and level, mobile Internet has been improved by wireless technologies, which capture, analyze, and store such information. Therefore, the following section investigates the development rate of HDDs. Hive. According to the principle of consistency, multiple copies of data must be identical in the Big Data environment.(b)Availability. How can integrity assessment be conducted realistically? Given the increase in data volume, data sources have increased in terms of size and variety. Data are also generated in different formats (unstructured and/or semistructured), which adversely affect data analysis, management, and storage. Although Hadoop has various projects (Table 2), each company applies a specific Hadoop product according to its needs. In data collection, special techniques are utilized to acquire raw data from a specific environment. This path influences the performance properties of a scalable streaming system slightly. To maximize data management and sharing, multipath data switching is conducted among internal nodes. Big Data is characterized by large systems, profits, and challenges. Hence, current real-world databases are highly susceptible to inconsistent, incomplete, and noisy data. Regression analysis is a mathematical technique that can reveal correlations between one variable and others. This paradigm is applied when the amount of data is too much for a single machine. Cloud platforms contain large amounts of data. Jeff Bullas, “Social Media Facts and Statistics You Should Know in 2014,” 2014, K. Goda and M. Kitsuregawa, “The history of storage systems,”. Very Limited SQL Support. However, lovers of data no longer consider the risk of privacy as they search comprehensively for information. Some of this information may not be structured for the relational database. These algorithms are useful for mining research problems in Big Data and cover classification, regression, clustering, association analysis, statistical learning, and link mining. However, the customers cannot physically assess the data because of data outsourcing. It emphasizes discovery from the perspective of scalability and analysis to realize near-impossible feats. In web sites and servers, user activity is captured in three log file formats (all are in ASCII): (i) public log file format (NCSA); (ii) expanded log format (W3C); and (iii) IIS log format (Microsoft). “Without big data analytics, companies are blind and deaf, wandering out onto the Web like deer on a freeway.” When author Geoffrey Moore tweeted that statement back in 2012, it may have been perceived as an overstatement. Lack of Essential Skills. Redundant data are stored in multiple areas across the cluster. Berlin, Germany: Springer; 2013. Integrity generally prevents illegal or unauthorized changes in usage, as per the definition presented by Clark and Wilson regarding the prevention of fraud and error [99]. Information about the open-access article 'Big Data: Survey, Technologies, Opportunities, and Challenges' in DOAJ. 2017 Jul 24;57(11):2286-2295. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2016.1257481. In cloud platforms with large data, availability is crucial because of data outsourcing. AISI 2019. (ii) Sensing. 1 !!!! Currently, 84% of IT managers process unstructured data, and this percentage is expected to drop by 44% in the near future [11]. The first is the map job, which involves obtaining a dataset and transforming it into another dataset.  |  Shehab N., Badawy M., Arafat H. (2020) Big Data Analytics Concepts, Technologies Challenges, and Opportunities. The following section describes the common challenges in Big Data analysis. Such challenges are mitigated by enhancing processor speed. This method broadly arranges news in real time to locate global information. In real-time instances of data flow, data that are generated at high speed strongly constrain processing algorithms spatially and temporally; therefore, certain requests must be fulfilled to process such data [85]. The classical approach to structured data management is divided into two parts: one is a schema to store the dataset and the other is a relational database for data retrieval. The current international population exceeds 7.2 billion [1], and over 2 billion of these people are connected to the Internet. In this context, this survey chapter presents a review of the current big data research, exploring applications, opportunities and challenges, as well as the state-of-the-art techniques and underlying models that exploit cloud computing technologies, such as the big data-as-a-service (BDaaS) or analytics-as-a-service (AaaS). Biol Direct. HCatalog. According to Computer World, unstructured information may account for more than 70% to 80% of all data in organizations [14]. To facilitate quick and efficient decision-making, large amounts of various data types must be analyzed. NS can be further classified into (i) network attached storage (NAS) and (ii) storage area network (SAN). The stages in this life cycle include collection, filtering, analysis, storage, publication, retrieval, and discovery. This model is commonly used for various tasks. Industry and academia are interested in disseminating the findings of big data. 2014, Article ID 712826, 18 pages, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/712826, 1Mobile Cloud Computing Research Lab, Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2Department of Computer Science, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Mardan 23200, Pakistan, 3Department of Computer Science, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Peshawar 2500, Pakistan, 4Saudi Electronic University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 5Universiti Kuala Lumpur, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Network data is captured by combining systems of web crawler, task, word segmentation, and index. Denial of service (DoS) is the result of flooding attacks. Boston.com [47] reported that in 2013, approximately 507 billion e-mails were sent daily. This redundancy also tolerates faults and enables the Hadoop cluster to repair itself if the component of commodity hardware fails, especially given large amount of data. This variation in data is accompanied by complexity and the development of additional means of data acquisition. To enhance such research, capital investments, human resources, and innovative ideas are the basic requirements. Therefore, it is applicable for existing data. To concentrate on shoddy trade practice, the FTC has cautiously delineated its Section 5 powers. Freescale Semiconductor Inc., “Integrated portable system processor,” 1995. researchers on big data and its trends [6], [7], [8]. Nawsher Khan, Ibrar Yaqoob, Ibrahim Abaker Targio Hashem, Zakira Inayat, Waleed Kamaleldin Mahmoud Ali, Muhammad Alam, Muhammad Shiraz, Abdullah Gani, "Big Data: Survey, Technologies, Opportunities, and Challenges", The Scientific World Journal, vol. However, the fast growth rate of such large data generates numerous challenges, such as the rapid growth of data, transfer speed, diverse data, and security. These research directions facilitate the exploration of the domain and the development of optimal techniques to address Big Data. The SAN system of data storage is independent with respect to storage on the local area network (LAN). Med Ref Serv Q. NielsenWire, “Media consumption and multi-tasking continue to increase across TV, Internet and Mobile,” 2009. Data collection or generation is generally the first stage of any data life cycle. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Cluster contains two types of nodes. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. Numerous emerging storage systems meet the demands and requirements of large data and can be categorized as direct attached storage (DAS) and network storage (NS). Businesses can therefore monitor risk, analyze decisions, or provide live feedback, such as postadvertising, based on the web pages viewed by customers [90]. For several decades, computer architecture has been CPU-heavy but I/O-poor [108]. !In!a!broad!range!of!applicationareas,!data!is!being These liberties blame privacy for pornography and plane accidents. Big data can generate value in each. These computers could also accommodate 6.4 × 1018 instructions per second [7]. Issues with data capture, cleaning, and storage. Currently, the wireless sensor network (WSN) has gained significant attention and has been applied in many fields, including environmental research [65, 66], the monitoring of water quality [67], civil engineering [68, 69], and the tracking of wildlife habit [70]. They developed the text-stream clustering of news classification online for real-time monitoring according to density-based clustering models, such as Twitter. This language is compiled by MapReduce and enables user-defined functions (UDFs). (c)Partition Tolerance. 2016 Oct;47(1):51-59. doi: 10.1007/s10840-016-0104-y. Large and extensive Big Data datasets must be stored and managed with reliability, availability, and easy accessibility; storage infrastructures must provide reliable space and a strong access interface that can not only analyze large amounts of data, but also store, manage, and determine data with relational DBMS structures. This relation is called a definitive dependence relationship. Therefore, data must be carefully structured prior to analysis. Nonetheless, the mainstream benefits in privacy analysis remain in line with the existing privacy doctrine authorized by the FTC to prohibit unfair trade practices in the United States and to protect the legitimate interests of the responsible party as per the clause in the EU directive on data protection [98]. However, Big Data is still in its infancy stage and has not been reviewed in general. Opportunities for utilizing big data are growing in the modern world of digital data. Priyadharshini and Parvathi [101] discussed and compared tag-based and data replication-based verification, data-dependent tag and data-independent tag, and entire data and data block dependent tag. Brown et al., “Big data: The next frontier for innovation, competition, and productivity,” Tech. However, data volume increases at a faster rate than computing resources and CPU speeds. (ii) Mitigation of DoS Attacks. Doug Cutting developed Hadoop as a collection of open-source projects on which the Google MapReduce programming environment could be applied in a distributed system. In reusability, determining the semantics of the published data is imperative; traditionally this procedure is performed manually. This paper focuses on challenges in big data and its available techniques. In this study, there are additional issues related to data, such as the fast growth of volume, variety, value, management, and security. Now, big data is universally accepted in almost every vertical, not least of all in marketing and sales. Big data: an introduction for librarians. In ZC, nodes do not produce copies that are not produced between internal memories during packet receiving and sending. As information is transferred and shared at light speed on optic fiber and wireless networks, the volume of data and the speed of market growth increase. Big Data: Survey, Technologies, Opportunities, and Challenges The functionality of MapReduce has been discussed in detail by [56, 57]. These research directions facilitate the exploration of the domain and the development of optimal techniques to address Big Data. How can online integrity be verified without exposing the structure of internal storage? Big Data: Survey, Technologies, Opportunities, and Challenges Nawsher Khan, 1,2 Ibrar Yaqoob, 1 Ibrahim Abaker Targio Hashem, 1 Zakira Inayat, 1,3 Waleed Kamaleldin Mahmoud Ali, 1 … The following factors must be considered in the use of distributed system to store large data.(a)Consistency. Furthermore, Big Data lacks the structure of traditional data. It is incorporated into other Apache Hadoop frameworks, such as Hive, Pig, Java MapReduce, Streaming MapReduce, and Distcp Sqoop. The following questions must also be answered. Rep., Mc Kinsey, May 2011. Hadoop [49] is written in Java and is a top-level Apache project that started in 2006. It sends such information back to Apple Inc. for processing; similarly, Google’s Android (an operating system for smart phones) and phones running Microsoft Windows also gather such data. Furthermore, 5 billion individuals are using various mobile devices, according to McKinsey (2013). Furthermore, data regarding the quantity of units shipped between 1976 and 1998 was obtained from Datasheetcatalog.com, 1995 [24]; [25–27]; Mandelli and Bossi, 2002 [28]; MoHPC, 2003; Helsingin Sanomat, 2000 [29]; Belk, 2007 [30–33]; and J. Woerner, 2010; those shipped between 1999 and 2004 were provided by Freescale Semiconductors 2005 [34, 35]; PortalPlayer, 2005 [36]; NVIDIA, 2009 [37, 38]; and Jeff, 1997 [39]; those shipped in 2005 and 2006 were obtained from Securities and Exchange Commission, 1998 [40]; those shipped in 2007 were provided by [41–43]; and those shipped from 2009 to 2013 were obtained from [23]. Since the establishment of organizations in the modern era, data mining has been applied in data recording. With regression analysis, the complex and undetermined correlations among variables are simplified and regularized. In NAS, data are transferred as files. Worldwide shipment of HDDs from 1976 to 2013. Furthermore, big IoT data analytic types, methods, and technologies for big data mining are discussed. Future research directions in this field are determined based on opportunities and several open issues in Big Data domination. Therefore, proper tools to adequately exploit Big Data are still lacking. Although we know that the outcomes, the challenges and opportunities of unstructured data and big data analytics are all far more important than the volume dimension (velocity, variety, value, purpose and action matter more), each single day new research is published to emphasize how much big data there really is. Furthermore, Big Data cannot be processed using existing technologies and methods [7]. Given the lack of data support caused by remote access and the lack of information regarding internal storage, integrity assessment is difficult. This method is commonly used to collect data by automatically recording files through a data source system. Future research directions in this field are determined based on opportunities and several open issues in Big Data domination. Mobile Networks and Applications. To ensure the availability of data during server failure, data are typically distributed into various pieces that are stored on multiple servers. Thus, Sebepou and Magoutis [87] proposed a scalable system of data streaming with a persistent storage path. As a result, Big Data analysis necessitates tremendously time-consuming navigation through a gigantic search space to provide guidelines and obtain feedback from users. Furthermore, the storage and computing requirements of Big Data analysis are effectively met by cloud computing [79]. Nonetheless, many traditional techniques for data analysis may still be used to process Big Data. HDFS was built for efficiency; thus, data is replicated in multiples. Coughlin Associates, “The 2012–2016 capital equipment and technology report for the hard disk drive industry,” 2013. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Correlation analysis determines the law of relations among practical phenomena, including mutual restriction, correlation, and correlative dependence. The following sections briefly describe each stage as exhibited in Figure 6. The organization systems of data storage (DAS, NAS, and SAN) can be divided into three parts: (i) Disc array, wherein the foundation of a storage system provides the fundamental guarantee; (ii) connection and network subsystems, which connect one or more disc arrays and servers; (iii) storage management software, which oversees data sharing, storage management, and disaster recovery tasks for multiple servers. G. Greenwald and E. MacAskill, “NSA Prism Program Taps in to User Data of Apple, Google and Others,” Guardian, 2013, J. Polonetsky and O. Tene, “Privacy and big data: making ends meet,”, I. Rubinstein, “Big data: the end of privacy or a new beginning?”, R. Clarke, “Privacy impact assessment: its origins and development,”. 2018 Nov 15;18(11):3980. doi: 10.3390/s18113980. The “Big Data in the Financial Services Industry: 2018 - 2030 - Opportunities, Challenges, Strategies & Forecasts” report presents an in-depth assessment of Big Data in the financial services industry including key market drivers, challenges, investment potential, application areas, use cases, future roadmap, value chain, case studies, vendor profiles and strategies. During each stage of the data life cycle, the management of Big Data is the most demanding issue. The increase in the volume of various data records is typically managed by purchasing additional online storage; however, the relative value of each data point decreases in proportion to aspects such as age, type, quantity, and richness. In particular, Hadoop can process extremely large volumes of data with varying structures (or no structure at all). The study also proposes a data life cycle that uses the technologies and terminologies of Big Data. As a result of this technological revolution, these millions of people are generating tremendous amounts of data through the increased use of such devices. It differentiates objects with particular features and distributes them into sets accordingly. Its special capabilities include the visual filtering and exploratory analysis of data. As a result of this imbalance, random I/O speeds have improved moderately, whereas sequential I/O speeds have increased gradually with density. 2014 Aug;8(4):192-201. doi: 10.5582/bst.2014.01048. http://www.worldometers.info/world-population/. In DAS, various HDDs are directly connected to servers. At present, DBMS allows users to express a wide range of conditions that must be met. 2012 Nov 28;7:43; discussion 43. doi: 10.1186/1745-6150-7-43. Hence, stream-specific requirements must be fulfilled to process these data [85]. This area is specifically involved in various subfields, including retrieval, management, authentication, archiving, preservation, and representation. However, the fast growth rate of such large data generates numerous challenges, such as the rapid growth of data, transfer speed, diverse data, and security. To increase query efficiency in massive log stores, log information is occasionally stored in databases rather than text files [62, 63]. (v) Mobile Equipment. In order to maximize the fast-moving technology wave of the Industrial Internet, companies need to think strategically about the foundational elements of their data architecture, starting with industrial data management. Hence, this study comprehensively surveys and classifies the various attributes of Big Data, including its nature, definitions, rapid growth rate, volume, management, analysis, and security. B. Jeff, “The evolution of DSP processors,” 1997. Data mining algorithms locate unknown patterns and homogeneous formats for analysis in structured formats. Therefore, it cannot execute an efficient cost-based plan. Information is simultaneously increasing at an exponential rate, but information processing methods are improving relatively slowly. However, six copies must be generated to sustain performance through data locality. However, the analysis of unstructured and/or semistructured formats remains complicated. Thus, such numerical values regularly fluctuate given the surrounding mean values. Challenging Framework. USA.gov. Therefore, additional research is necessary to improve the efficiency of integrity evaluation online, as well as the display, analysis, and storage of Big Data. Big Data involves large systems, profits, and challenges. ZC reduces the number of times data is copied, the number of system calls, and CPU load as datagrams are transmitted from network devices to user program space. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. Flume. Mahout. Big Data: Survey, Technologies, Opportunities, and Challenges, Mobile Cloud Computing Research Lab, Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Department of Computer Science, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Mardan 23200, Pakistan, Department of Computer Science, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Peshawar 2500, Pakistan, Saudi Electronic University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, Universiti Kuala Lumpur, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, http://www.worldometers.info/world-population/, http://www.marketingtechblog.com/ibm-big-data-marketing/, http://www.intel.com/content/dam/www/public/us/en/documents/reports/data-insights-peer-research-report.pdf, http://www.youtube.com/yt/press/statistics.html, http://www.statisticbrain.com/facebook-statistics/, http://www.statisticbrain.com/twitter-statistics/, http://www.jeffbullas.com/2014/01/17/20-social-media-facts-and-statistics-you-should-know-in-2014/, http://marciaconner.com/blog/data-on-big-data/, http://www.tomcoughlin.com/Techpapers/2012%20Capital%20Equipment%20Report%20Brochure%20021112.pdf, http://pdf.datasheetcatalog.com/datasheets2/19/199744_1.pdf, http://web.archive.org/web/20080401091547/http:/http://www.byte.com/art/9509/sec7/art9.htm, http://ic.laogu.com/datasheet/31/MC68EZ328_MOTOROLA_105738.pdf, http://www.freescale.com/files/32bit/doc/prod_brief/MC68VZ328P.pdf, http://www.worldinternetproject.net/_files/_Published/_oldis/wip2002-rel-15-luglio.pdf, http://www.cdg.org/news/events/webcast/070228_webcast/Qualcomm.pdf, http://www.etforecasts.com/products/ES_pdas2003.htm, http://www.researchexcellence.com/news/032609_vcm.php, http://blog.nielsen.com/nielsenwire/media_entertainment/three-screen-report-mediaconsumption-and-multi-tasking-continue-to-increase, http://www.freescale.com/webapp/sps/site/prod_summary.jsp?code=SCF5250&nodeId=0162468rH3YTLC00M91752, http://www.eetimes.com/design/audio-design/4015931/Findout-what-s-really-inside-the-iPod, http://www.eefocus.com/data/06-12/111_1165987864/File/1166002400.pdf, http://microblog.routed.net/wp-content/uploads/2007/11/pp5020e.pdf, http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/~pattrsn/152F97/slides/slides.evolution.ps, http://wikibon.org/blog/big-data-infographics/, http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/jun/06/nsa-phone-records-verizon-court-order, http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2013/jun/06/us-tech-giants-nsa-data, (i) Users upload 100 hours of new videos per minute, (i) Every minute, 34,722 Likes are registered, (i) This site is used by 45 million people worldwide, The site gets over 2 million search queries per minute, Approximately 47,000 applications are downloaded per minute, More than 34,000 Likes are registered per minute, Blog owners publish 27,000 new posts per minute, Bloggers publish near 350 new blogs per minute, Distributed processing and fault tolerance, Facebook, Yahoo, ContexWeb.Joost, Last.fm, (i) Data are loaded into HDFS in blocks and distributed to data nodes, Submits the job and its details to the Job Tracker, (i) The Job Tracker interacts with the Task Tracker on each data node, The Mapper sorts the list of key value pairs, (i) The mapped output is transferred to the Reducers, Reducers merge the list of key value pairs to generate the final result, Unmanaged documents and unstructured files, Unavailability of the service during application migration.

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